Ion Implantation has been the dominant doping technique for silicon ICs for the last 40 years. In this process, dopant ions are accelerated to an energy of 100 eV to some MeV and shot onto the wafer. Because of interaction and collisions of the ions with atoms, the ions will be distracted and stopped. Thereby the ions are distributed within the wafer and form doping profiles with the device structures present on the wafer.
The big advantage of this process is its high controlability, since the ion energy, the dose and the direction of the ion beam can be set very accurately. Moreover it is a low temperature process which is beneficial for the effort to keep the thermal budget of single process steps low, since a lot of process steps have to be performed to setup a semiconductor device.
The major drawback of the ion implantation process is that the introduced dopant atoms are not electrically active why a thermal activation has to be performed afterwards.
Within the ion implantation simulation tool MCIMPL-II an analytical module as well as a Monte Carlo module are integrated to calculate the ion implantation induced doping distribution.