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The basic equations are the Poisson
equation and continuity equations for electrons and holes.
div(^{ . }grad ) 
= q^{ . }(n  p  C) 
(3.2) 
div J_{n} 
= q^{ . }R +

(3.3) 
div J_{p} 
=  q^{ . }R +

(3.4) 
The unknown quantities of this equation system are the electrostatic potential
and the electron and hole concentrations n and p, respectively.
C denotes the net concentration of the ionized impurities,
is the
dielectric permittivity of the semiconductor, and R is the net recombination
rate which has to be modeled properly.
Tibor Grasser
19990531