List of Symbols

Bulk modulus | |

Specific heat | |

Elasticity tensor | |

Atomic concentration | |

Concentration of lattice sites | |

Vacancy concentration | |

Equilibrium vacancy concentration in the absence of stress | |

Equilibrium vacancy concentration | |

Trapped vacancy concentration | |

Vacancy diffusivity tensor | |

Atomic diffusion coefficient | |

Vacancy diffusion coefficient | |

Pre-exponential factor for vacancy diffusivity | |

Elementary charge | |

Young modulus | |

Electric field | |

Activation energy for diffusion | |

Vacancy relaxation factor | |

Vacancy generation/annihilation term | |

Current density | |

Atomic flux | |

Vacancy flux | |

Boltzmann constant | |

Mean time to failure | |

Heat of transport | |

Temperature | |

Displacement vector | |

Effective valence | |

Linear temperature coefficient of the electrical conductivity | |

Linear temperature coefficient of the thermal conductivity | |

Quadratic temperature coefficient of the electrical conductivity | |

Quadratic temperature coefficient of the thermal conductivity | |

Electrical conductivity at room temperature | |

Thermal conductivity at room temperature | |

Thermal expansion coefficient | |

Electrical conductivity | |

Thermal conductivity | |

Grain boundary/interface width | |

Total strain | |

Elastic strain | |

Electromigration induced strain | |

Thermal strain | |

Chemical potential | |

Vacancy chemical potential | |

Poisson ratio | |

Vacancy release rate | |

Vacancy trapping rate | |

Atomic volume | |

Vacancy volume | |

Electric resistivity | |

Material density | |

Mechanical stress | |

Critical stress for void nucleation | |

Vacancy relaxation time |

R. L. de Orio: Electromigration Modeling and Simulation