1.1.1 Lithography

Lithography is a general name given to a series of processing steps which transfer the information from a mask to a desired surface. Essentially, these steps are used to selectively remove material from the wafer surface. Initially, a photoresist is deposited on the wafer surface and desired areas of the photoresist are exposed to UV or other radiation using a photomask to allow the rays access to desired photoresist areas. The wafer is then placed in a developer, where the portions of the photoresist exposed to (for positive resists) or protected from (for negative resists) the UV rays are removed. The surface below the photoresist can now be etched with the photoresist serving as an etching mask for further processing steps.

L. Filipovic: Topography Simulation of Novel Processing Techniques