1.1.4 Chemical Mechanical Planarization

CMP is a process which combines chemical and physical mechanisms in order to smooth desired surfaces and flatten an irregular wafer surface. Imperfections in wafer topology can lead to adverse affects in the lithographic process used to etch a desired pattern on the wafer. Many modern devices contain multiple layers, which makes it difficult for the photolithographic optical tools to maintain their focus. Applying a CMP step after each material deposition improves material planarity and a high manufacturing yield can still be maintained with coarse photolithographic steps.

L. Filipovic: Topography Simulation of Novel Processing Techniques