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Capacitances and inductances are considered in the time domain only and the
derivatives are discretized using finite difference methods. The most common
difference method is the backward Euler scheme which is an implicit
first-order method. For example, for a linear capacitor the time derivative
of the current
*I* = *C*^{ . }d*V*/d*t* is represented in terms of the backward
Euler scheme as
*I* = *I*(*t*) = *C*^{ . } |
(2.28) |

with *V*_{o} being the voltage of the last time step.

*Tibor Grasser *

1999-05-31