next up previous contents
Next: 1.1.1 Unit Processes Up: 1. Introduction Previous: 1. Introduction

1.1 Semiconductor Technology

The design and fabrication of an IC is a complicated endeavor. Modern VLSI technology uses fabrication processes that consist of several hundred process steps being applied one after the other to the raw semiconductor wafer. The major processing steps involved in the fabrication can be arranged in three groups:

The above listed major processing steps are discussed in the subsequent section from a qualitative point of view. Some aspects of the overall process integration will also be given.


Heinrich Kirchauer, Institute for Microelectronics, TU Vienna