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The design and fabrication of an IC is a complicated
endeavor. Modern VLSI technology uses fabrication processes that
consist of several hundred process steps being applied one after the
other to the raw semiconductor wafer. The major processing steps
involved in the fabrication can be arranged in three groups:
- Pattern transfer by lithography and etching.
- Layer formation by oxidation, deposition,
- Layer modification by ion implantation and diffusion.
The above listed major processing steps are discussed in the subsequent
section from a qualitative point of view.
Some aspects of the overall process integration will also be given.
Heinrich Kirchauer, Institute for Microelectronics, TU Vienna