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3.3.1 Strain due to Vacancy Migration
When an atom is exchanged for a vacancy, the neighboring atoms relax, leading to a total volume change given by

(3.30) 
Given a test volume , the relative volume change associated with a change in vacancy concentration is [147]

(3.31) 
so that the volumetric strain has the form

(3.32) 
where
refers to the migration strain.
Taking the time derivative of the above equation one gets

(3.33) 
and, since for the test volume the atomvacancy exchange is governed by the continuity equation

(3.34) 
the components of the migration strain rate is given by

(3.35) 
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R. L. de Orio: Electromigration Modeling and Simulation