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List of Symbols

$a$, $b$, $c$ Diameters of the structuring element
$A$, $B$, $C$ Bleachable absorption coefficients of Dill's `ABC'-model
$c_1$, $c_2$ Reaction rate constants
$c_i$ Concentration of species $i$
$c_x$ Geometric complexity exponent
$d$ Averaging distance for calculating surface normals
$d_p$ Particle diameter
$D_i$ Diffusion coefficient of species $i$
$\mathrm{E}$ Ion enhancement factor
${E_A}$ Activation energy
$\mathbf{E}(\mathbf{x})$ Complex-valued phasor of time-harmonic electric field
$\mathrm{F}(\varphi, \vartheta), \mathrm{F'}(\varphi, \vartheta)$ Angular distribution functions
$\mathrm{F_{\!off}}(\varphi, \vartheta)$ Angular distribution function for off center position
$\mathbf{H}(\mathbf{x})$ Complex-valued phasor of time-harmonic magnetic field
$I$ Electrical current
$I(\mathbf{x};t)$ Intensity distribution
$k$ Boltzmann number, 1.381$10^{-23}$J/K
$k_0$ Characteristic parameter of lithography processes
$K_n$ Knudsen number
$\bar{l}$ Mean free path
$m$ Fitting paramter for particle distribution
$\mathrm{Mag}$ Magnitude of electrical field component
$n$ Number of cells in one dimension
$n_0$ Refractive Index
$n(\mathbf{x};t)$ Complex-valued refractive index
$n_x$ Fraction of convex corner surface cells
$\mathrm{N}$ Normalizing factor for distribution functions
$\mathit{NA}$ Numerical aperture of a lens or a lens system
$p$ Pressure
$\mathrm{Pha}$ Phase of electrical field component
$r$ Local etch or deposition rate
$r_n$ Rate resolved by cells size
$r_0$ Nominal etch or deposition rate for flat wafer
$r_\mathrm{direct}$ Etch or deposition contribution from directly incident particles
$R$ Gas constant
$R^{\mathrm{hom}}$, $R^{\mathrm{het}}$ Homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction rate
$\mathrm{S}(\alpha)$ Angular dependent etching yield
$\mathrm{S}_0$ Etching yield for normal incidence
$t$ Time
$\Delta t$ Time-step
$T$ Temperature
$T_{ij}$ Reflection transformation matrix
$V$ Voltage
$W$ Lithographic resolution
$x, y, z$ Position along x-, y-, and z-axis
$\Delta x, \Delta y, \Delta z$ Differerence in position in x-, y-, and z-Axis
$\alpha$ Angle
$\Delta\alpha$ Angular step width
$\chi$ Reciprocal relative permittivity
$\epsilon$ Energy
$\varepsilon $ Permittivity
$\varepsilon _0$ Vacuum permittivity
$\eta_0$ Free-space resistance
$\gamma(\mathbf{x};t)$ Light sensitive photoresist compound
$\vartheta, \vartheta'$ Azimuthal angle
$\vartheta_{\mathrm{src}}$ Azimuthal direction of the sputter target center
$\kappa$ Dielectric constant
$\lambda$ Actinic wavelength
$\mu_0$ Vacuum permeability
$\omega$ Angular frequency
$\Omega$ Solid angle
$\Omega(\varphi, \vartheta)$ Visibility function
$\Omega^\mathrm{c}(\varphi, \vartheta)$ Complementary visibility function
$\varphi, \varphi'$ Polar angle
$\varphi_{\mathrm{src}}$ Polar direction of the sputter target center
$\sigma$ Sticking coefficient
$\sigma_s$ Standard deviation
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W. Pyka: Feature Scale Modeling for Etching and Deposition Processes in Semiconductor Manufacturing