Section 2.4 describes the evolution of the LON technology from the discovery of the scanning probe microscope to the development of AFM lithography for local anodic oxidation of silicon surfaces. Due to the significant advantages which ICM and NCM lithography possess over STM and CM lithographies, the modeling of those two methods for nano-oxidation of silicon surfaces have been implemented in the simulator. However, models for all SPM methods will be analyzed in this section. The mechanism and kinetics of AFM oxidation will be described in order to determine the best modeling technique for AFM LON. Empirical models for nanodot and nanowire sizes will be presented, along with the MC approach, implemented in order to generate the required nanodot and nanowire shapes within the LS simulator.