For the practical realization of the transition of the given theoretical concepts into applicable concepts, an effective data model is essential to the design and development of scientific software . Data exchange and data access, whether it may be internally within an application via independent software components or externally among applications, requires defined and consistent interfaces which explicitly communicate all the properties of a given dataset. Especially by the current worldwide development of shared and open-source resources, the concept of data and even application interoperability is a growing demand. The concept of a data model, denoting a data structure with a set of operations on it, is exactly this type of concept and was first considered by F. Codd  by defining a relational scheme for structuring data and providing access and query operations for relational databases. So a data model is a primary consideration in the design of any software system dealing with different data occurring in scientific computing.
Four different concepts for application design are therefore identified which are required to describe scientific data. The different requirements for the interfaces between these levels are analyzed according to their relationships, as depicted in Figure 4.1.
The affinity to various programming paradigms can be identified by the respective couplings among each of these abstraction layers, where each level intrinsically requires a special transformation into software components. Therefore each link between these levels is classified by computational issues of scientific computing. The details of each level of abstraction are reviewed next:
While mathematical semantics (Level III) specify which operations are possible on a certain field, the specification of which operations are meaningful (Level IV) are mostly user-driven and on the application level. When the given levels of abstraction are used, the requirements for a data model are deployed. One such possible data model was therefore suggested by Butler and Pendley [20,21], who identified an abstraction for an object-oriented scientific data model of considerable generality based on the mathematical concept of fiber bundles (see Section 1.5). Its adoption was, until now, restricted to scientific visualization. Scientific visualization deals with results from large-scale simulations that generate a large amount of numerical data. The analysis of data has become an increasingly important research task, and various overviews and related implementations are available [78,80,81,1,82].
Butler's approach was originally limited to vector bundles and implemented in Eiffel . It was the first step towards a data model for scientific computing, but not without practical issues . In this approach there was no concept of cell and complex topology (cells and skeletons) on a discretized manifold. The use of different types of -cells is a fundamental requirement for arbitrary -cochains, e.g., the use of cells instead of vertices is important when interpolating data at arbitrary locations.