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S. Iyer, G. Patton, S. Delage, S. Tiwari, and J. Stork, ``Silicon-Germanium Base Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,'' in Proc. Si-MBE Symp., pp. 114-125, 1987.

T. Kamins, K. Nauka, L. Camnitz, J. Kruger, J. Turner, S. Rosner, M. Scott, J. Hoyt, C. King, D. Noble, and J. Gibbons, ``High Frequency Si/Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_x$ Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 647-650, 1989.

J. Cressler, J. Comfort, E. Crabbe, G. Patton, J. Stork, J.-C. Sun, and B. Meyerson, ``On the Profile Design and Optimization of Epitaxial Si- and SiGe-Base Bipolar Technology for 77 K Applications - Part I: Transistor DC Design Considerations,'' IEEE Trans.Electron Devices, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 525-541, 1993.

P. Narozny, H. Dämbkes, H. Kibbel, and E. Kasper, ``Si/SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Made by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy,'' IEEE Trans.Electron Devices, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2363-2366, 1989.

A. Schüppen, A. Gruhle, H. Kibbel, U. Erben, and U. König, ``SiGe HBTs with High $f_{\mathrm{T}}$ at Moderate Current Densities,'' Electron.Lett., vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1187-1188, 1994.

K. Oda, E. Ohue, M. Tanabe, H. Shimamoto, T. Onai, and K. Washio, ``130-GHz $f_{\mathrm{T}}$ SiGe HBT Technology,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 791-794, 1997.

A. Schüppen, U. Erben, A. Gruhle, H. Kibbel, H. Schumacher, and U. König, ``Enhanced SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors with 160-GHz $f_{\mathrm{max}}$,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 743-746, 1995.

K. Oda, E. Ohue, M. Tanabe, H. Shimamoto, and K. Washio, ``DC and AC Performances in Selectively Grown SiGe-Base HBTs,'' IEICE Trans.Electron., vol. E82-C, no. 11, pp. 2013-2020, 1999.

G. Freeman, D. Ahlgren, D. Greenberg, R. Groves, F. Huang, G. Hugo, B. Jagannathan, S. Jeng, K. Schonenberg, K. Stein, R. Volant, and S. Subbanna, ``A 0.18 $\mu$m 90 GHz $f_{\mathrm{T}}$ SiGe HBT BiCMOS, ASIC-Compatible, Copper Interconnect Technology for RF and Microwave Applications,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 569-572, 1999.

W. Klein and B.-U. Klepser, ``75-GHz Bipolar Production Technology for the 21st Century,'' in 29th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (H. Maes, R. Mertens, G. Declerck, and H. Grünbacher, eds.), (Leuven, Belgium), pp. 88-94, Editions Frontiers, 1999.

S. Subbanna, G. Freeman, D. Ahlgren, B. Jagannathan, D. Greenberg, J. Johnson, P. Bacon, R. Najarian, D. Herman, and B. Meyerson, ``Review of Silicon-Germanium BICMOS Technology after 4 Years of Production and Future Directions,'' in Tech.Dig. GaAs IC Symp., (Seattle, USA), pp. 7-10, 2000.

A. Schüppen, ``SiGe-HBTs for Mobile Communications,'' Solid-State Electron., vol. 43, pp. 1373-1381, 1999.

K. Washio, E. Ohue, K. Oda, R. Hayami, M. Tanabe, H. Shimamoto, T. Masuda, K. Ohhata, and M. Kondo, ``Self-Aligned Selective-Epitaxial-Growth SiGe HBTs: Process, Device, and ICs,'' Thin Solid Films, vol. 369, no. 1-2, pp. 352-357, 2000.

T. Niwa, Y. Amamiya, M. Mamada, and H. Shimawaki, ``High- $f_{\mathrm{T}}$ AlGaAs/lnGaAs HBTs with Reduced Emitter Resistance for Low-Power-Consumption, High-Speed ICs,'' in Proc. Intl. Symp. on Compound Semiconductors, (Bristol, UK), pp. 309-312, IOP, 1999.

T. Oka, K. Hirata, K. Ouchi, H. Uchiyama, T. Taniguchi, K. Mochizuki, and T. Nakamura, ``Advanced Performance of Small-Scaled InGaP/GaAs HBTs with $f_{\mathrm{T}}$ over 150 GHz and $f_{\mathrm{max}}$ over 250 GHz,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 653-656, 1998.

D. Mensa, Q. Lee, J. Guthrie, S. Jaganathan, and M. Rodwell, ``Transferred-Substrate HBTs with 250 GHz Current-Gain Cutoff Frequency,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 657-660, 1998.

Q. Lee, S. Martin, D. Mensa, R. Smith, J. Guthrie, and M. Rodwell, ``Submicron Transferred-Substrate Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors,'' IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 396-398, 1999.

M. Yanagihara, H. Sakai, Y. Ota, M. Tanabe, K. Inoue, and A. Tamura, ``253-GHz $f_{\mathrm{max}}$ AlGaAs/GaAs HBT with Ni/Ti/Pt/Ti/Pt-Contact and L-Shaped Electrode,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 807-810, 1995.

C. Bolognesi, M. Dvorak, O. Pitts, and S. Watkins, ``200 GHz InP/GaAs$_x$Sb$_{1-x}$ Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors,'' in Tech.Dig. GaAs IC Symp., (Seattle, USA), pp. 233-236, 2000.

K. Oda, E. Ohue, M. Tanabe, H. Shimamoto, and K. Washio, ``Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_x$ Selective Epitaxial Growth for Ultra-High-Speed Self-Aligned HBTs,'' Thin Solid Films, vol. 369, no. 1-2, pp. 358-361, 2000.

K. Washio, E. Ohue, K. Oda, R. Hayami, M. Tanabe, H. Shimamoto, T. Harada, and M. Kondo, ``82 GHz Dynamic Frequency Divider in 5.5 ps ECL SiGe HBTs,'' in Dig. Intl. Solid-State Circuits Conference, (San Francisco, USA), pp. 210-211, 2000.

T. Suemitsu, T. Ishii, H. Yokoyama, Y. Umeda, T. Enoki, and T. Tamamura, ``30-nm-gate InAlAs/InGaAs HEMTs Lattice-Matched to InP Substrates,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 223-226, 1998.

L. Nguyen, A. Brown, M. Thompson, and L. Jelloian, ``50-nm Self-Aligned-Gate Pseudomorphic AlInAs/GaInAs High Electron Mobility Transistors,'' IEEE Trans.Electron Devices, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 2007-2014, 1992.

M. Wojtowicz, R. Lai, D. Streit, G. Ng, T. Block, K. Tan, P. Liu, A. Freudenthal, and R. Dia, ``0.10 $\mu$m Graded InGaAs Channel InP HEMT with 305 GHz $f_{\mathrm{T}}$ and 340 GHz $f_{\mathrm{max}}$,'' IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 477-479, 1994.

H. Nakajima, T. Ishibashi, E. Sano, M. Ida, S. Yamahata, and Y. Ishii, ``InP-Based High-Speed Electronics,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 771-774, 1999.

C. Gässler, V. Ziegler, C. Wölk, R. Deufel, F.-J. Berlec, N. Käb, and E. Kohn, ``Metamorphic HFETs on GaAs with InP-Sub-Channels for Device Performance Improvements,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, (in print), 2000.

J.-E. Müller, P. Baureis, O. Berger, T. Boettner, N. Bovolon, R. Schultheis, G. Packeiser, and P. Zwicknagl, ``A Small Chip Size 2 W, 62% Efficient HBT MMIC for 3 V PCN Applications,'' IEEE J.Solid-State Circuits, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1277-1283, 1998.

K. Yamamoto, S. Suzuki, K. Mori, T. Asada, T. Okuda, A. Inoue, T. Miura, K. Chomei, R. Hattori, M. Yamanouchi, and T. Shimura, ``A 3.2-V Operation Single-Chip Dual-Band AlGaAs/GaAs HBT MMIC Power Amplifier with Active Feedback Circuit Technique,'' IEEE J.Solid-State Circuits, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 1109-1120, 2000.

W. Okamura, L. Yang, A. Gutierrez-Aitken, E. Kaneshiro, J. Lester, D. Sawdai, P. Grossman, K. Kobayashi, H. Yen, A. Oki, P. Chin, and T. Block, ``K-Band 76% PAE InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Power Transistors and a 23 GHz Compact Linear Power Amplifier MMIC,'' in Tech.Dig. GaAs IC Symp., (Seattle, USA), pp. 219-222, 2000.

C. Rheinfelder, H. Kuhnert, J. Luy, W. Heinrich, and A. Schuppen, ``SiGe MMIC's Beyond 20 GHz on a Commercial Technology,'' in Dig. MTT-S Intl. Microwave Symp., (Denver, USA), vol. 2, pp. 727-730, 1997.

G. Raghavan, M. Sokolich, and W. Stanchina, ``Indium Phosphide ICs Unleash the High-Frequency Spectrum,'' IEEE Spectrum, pp. 47-52, Oct. 2000.

D. Pavlidis, ``HBT vs. PHEMT vs. MESFET: What's Best and Why,'' Compound Semiconductor, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 56-59, 1999.

S. Selberherr, Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor Devices.
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W. Hänsch, The Drift Diffusion Equation and its Application in MOSFET Modeling.
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C. Jacoboni and P. Lugli, The Monte Carlo Method for Semiconductor Device Simulation.
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K. Hess, ed., Monte Carlo Device Simulation: Full Band and Beyond.
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H. Kosina and S. Selberherr, ``A Hybrid Device Simulator that Combines Monte Carlo and Drift-Diffusion Analysis,'' IEEE Trans.Computer-Aided Design, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 201-210, 1994.

W. Engl, A. Emunds, B. Meinerzhagen, H. Peifer, and T. Thoma, ``Bridging the Gap between the Hydrodynamic and the Monte Carlo Model - An Attempt -,'' in Proc. VLSI Process/Device Modeling Workshop, (Osaka, Japan), pp. 32-33, 1989.

S. Laux and M. Fischetti, ``The DAMOCLES Monte Carlo Device Simulation Program,'' in Computational Electronics (K. Hess, J. Leburton, and U. Ravaioli, eds.), pp. 87-92, Kluwer, 1991.

ISE Integrated Systems Engineering AG, Zürich, Switzerland, DESSIS-ISE, ISE TCAD Release 6.0, 1999.

Technology Modeling Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, TMA Medici, Two-Dimensional Device Simulation Program, Version 4.0 User's Manual, 1997.

S. Beebe, F. Rotella, Z. Sahul, D. Yergeau, G. McKenna, L. So, Z. Yu, K. Wu, E. Kan, J. McVittie, and R. Dutton, ``Next Generation Stanford TCAD--PISCES 2ET and SUPREM 007,'' in Intl.Electron Devices Meeting, pp. 213-216, 1994.

C. Fischer, P. Habaš, O. Heinreichsberger, H. Kosina, P. Lindorfer, P. Pichler, H. Pötzl, C. Sala, A. Schütz, S. Selberherr, M. Stiftinger, and M. Thurner, MINIMOS 6 User's Guide.
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R. Anholt, Electrical and Thermal Characterization of MESFETs, HEMTs,and HBTs.
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Avant! Corporation, Fremont, CA, Medici, Two-Dimensional Device Simulation Program, Version 1999.2, 1999.

J.J. Liou, Principles&Analysis of AlGaAs/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors,
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E. Lyumkis, R. Mickevicius, O. Penzin, B. Polsky, and K. E. Sayed, ``Numerical Analysis of Electron Tunneling through Hetero-Interfaces and Schottky Barriers in Heterostructure Devices,'' in Tech.Dig. GaAs IC Symp., (Seattle, USA), pp. 129-132, 2000.

C. Morton, J. Atherton, C. Snowden, R. Polard, and M. Howes, ``A Large-Signal Physical HEMT Model,'' in Dig. MTT-S Intl. Microwave Symp., (San Francisco, USA), pp. 1759-1763, 1996.

C. Morton and C. Snowden, ``Comparison of Quasi-2D and Ensemble Monte Carlo Simulations for Deep Submicron HEMTs,'' in Dig. MTT-S Intl. Microwave Symp., (Boston, USA), pp. 153-156, 2000.

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J. Geßner, F. Schwierz, H. Mau, D. Nuernbergk, M. Roßberg, and D. Schipanski, ``Simulation of the Frequency Limits of SiGe HBTs,'' in Proc. Intl. Conf. on Modeling and Simulation of Microsystems, (San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA), pp. 407-410, 1999.

G. Formicone, D. Vasileska, and D. Ferry, ``2D Monte Carlo Simulation of Hole and Electron Transport in Strained Si,'' VLSI Design, vol. 6, no. 1-4, pp. 167-171, 1998.

Y. Apanovich, R. Cottle, E. Lyumkis, B. Polsky, A. Shur, and P. Blakey, ``2D Simulation of Heterojunction Devices Including Energy Balance and Lattice Heating,'' in 24th European Solid State Device Research Conference (C. Hill and P. Ashburn, eds.), (Edinburgh, Scottland), pp. 463-466, Editions Frontiers, 1994.

J. Kuo-JB, H. Chen, B. Chen, and T. Lu, ``DC and Transient Analysis of a SiGe-Base Heterojunction Bipolar Device in an ECL Buffer Using a Modified PISCES Program,'' Solid-State Electron., vol. 36, pp. 1273-1276, 1993.

D. Richey, J. Cressler, and A. Joseph, ``Scaling Issues and Ge Profile Optimization in Advanced UHV/CVD SiGe HBT's,'' IEEE Trans.Electron Devices, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 431-440, 1997.

T. Binder, K. Dragosits, T. Grasser, R. Klima, M. Knaipp, H. Kosina, R. Mlekus, V. Palankovski, M. Rottinger, G. Schrom, S. Selberherr, and M. Stockinger, MINIMOS-NT User's Guide.
Institut für Mikroelektronik, Technische Universität Wien, 1998.

S. Selberherr, A. Schütz, and H. Pötzl, ``MINIMOS--A Two-Dimensional MOS Transistor Analyzer,'' IEEE Trans.Electron Devices, vol. ED-27, no. 8, pp. 1540-1550, 1980.

M. Stockinger and S. Selberherr, ``Closed-Loop CMOS Gate Delay Time Optimization,'' in 29th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (H. Maes, R. Mertens, G. Declerck, and H. Grünbacher, eds.), (Leuven, Belgium), pp. 504-507, Editions Frontiers, 1999.

T. Simlinger, H. Brech, T. Grave, and S. Selberherr, ``Simulation of Submicron Double-Heterojunction High Electron Mobility Transistors with MINIMOS-NT,'' IEEE Trans.Electron Devices, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 700-707, 1997.

H. Brech, T. Grave, T. Simlinger, and S. Selberherr, ``Optimization of Pseudomorphic HEMT's Supported by Numerical Simulations,'' IEEE Trans.Electron Devices, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1822-1828, 1997.

R. Quay, R. Reuter, V. Palankovski, and S. Selberherr, ``S-Parameter Simulation of RF-HEMTs,'' in Proc. High Performance Electron Devices for Microwave and Optoelectronic Applications EDMO, (Manchester, UK), pp. 13-18, 1998.

T. Grasser, V. Palankovski, G. Schrom, and S. Selberherr, ``Hydrodynamic Mixed-Mode Simulation,'' in Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices (K. De Meyer and S. Biesemans, eds.), (Leuven, Belgium), pp. 247-250, Springer, 1998.

V. Palankovski, S. Selberherr, and R. Schultheis, ``Simulation of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors on Gallium-Arsenide,'' in Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices, (Kyoto, Japan), pp. 227-230, 1999.

V. Palankovski, R. Quay, S. Selberherr, and R. Schultheis, ``S-Parameter Simulation of HBTs on Gallium-Arsenide,'' in Proc. High Performance Electron Devices for Microwave and Optoelectronic Applications EDMO, (London, UK), pp. 15-19, 1999.

V. Palankovski, G. Kaiblinger-Grujin, H. Kosina, and S. Selberherr, ``A Dopant-Dependent Band Gap Narrowing Model Application for Bipolar Device Simulation,'' in Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices (K. De Meyer and S. Biesemans, eds.), (Leuven, Belgium), pp. 105-108, Springer, 1998.

V. Palankovski, G. Kaiblinger-Grujin, and S. Selberherr, ``Implications of Dopant-Dependent Low-Field Mobility and Band Gap Narrowing on the Bipolar Device Performance,'' J.Phys.IV, vol. 8, pp. 91-94, EDP Sciences, 1998.

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Vassil Palankovski