List of Abbreviations

IC Integrated circuit
ENIAC Electronic numerical integrator and computer
TSV Through silicon via
FEOL Front-end of line
BEOL Back-end of line
CTE Coefficient of themal expansion
PDE Partial differential equation
FEM Finite element method
BVP Boundary value problem
ODE Ordinary differential equation
IVP Initial value problem
BDF Back differentiation formula
CVD Chemical vapor deposition
PVD Physical vapor deposition
CMOS Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor
GA Genetic algorithm
PECVD Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
VW Volmer-Weber