Currently there are three approaches under investigation, which deal with this problem. One possibility is to find process technologies which allow production of impurity free materials or materials where impurities accumulate in regions where they are not disturbing device behavior. A second approach is to use SET features which are independent of random background charge, like Coulomb oscillations. Such a design is investigated in Section 5.2.9. The third solution is to use, instead of a single island, an array of similar islands which show extraordinary resistance to random background charge. A design with these features is investigated in Section 5.2.10.
Random background charges are for the time being the worst problem single-electron devices face today. In the past room temperature operation was in the forefront. Since the first granular production processes showed room temperature or near room temperature operation it is not of so much concern anymore; reliable operation will be achieved in the next years. However, the search for solutions to the random background charge problem continues.