7.1 Transition Rates according to the NMP Theory

The transition rates of charge transfer reactions must be discussed on the basis of configuration coordinate diagrams. One such a diagram is depicted in Fig. 7.1 for the case of hole trapping. The adiabatic potentials and in the configuration coordinate diagrams are approximated by the parabolas around their respective minima and assuming the harmonic approximation:  and denote the vibrational frequency of the oscillator potential when the defect is in the charge state and , respectively. It is stressed that these oscillator potentials of both charge states are assumed to have different curvatures in this derivation. The transition barriers and differ by the energy , which can be expressed as using the relations  Figure 7.1: The configuration coordinate diagram for a hole trapping process. The left parabola corresponds to the case when the defect is neutral and the holes reside in the substrate valence band. Then the hole can be thermally excited by an energy , accompanied by an upwards shift of the left parabola from (solid) to (dashed). By contrast, when the defect is positively charged (right parabola), the whole system including the defect and the substrate is represented by the parabola (solid). In general, the curvature of and do not need to be equal. As a consequence, both adiabatic potentials are characterized by their own oscillator frequency ( , ) and in further consequence their own Huang Rhys factor ( , ). corresponds to the separation of the trap level from the valence band edge and gives the kinetic energy of the substrate hole. Making use of expression (7.3), the difference between the transition barriers can be expressed as: Using the identity (2.62) and equation (7.6), one obtains the following relation: Analogously to the equation (2.59), the trapping dynamics are governed by the rate equation with Making use of (7.6), the above rate equation can be simplified to In order to evaluate the integral in the above equation, analytic expressions for and are required. The former is defined as the energy difference between and the intersection point IP in the configuration coordinate diagram. The position of of this point can be derived from the condition  with Inserting the expression (7.13) into equation (7.1), one obtains where the Huang Rhys factor is defined by the equation A second order expansion of equation (7.15) delivers According to equation (7.14), the oscillator frequencies and differ and thus the quantity deviates from unity. Since enters the above expression for the barrier height, the oscillator frequencies have a strong impact on the transition rates. When the kinetic energy of the substrate hole is taken into account, must be replaced by and equation (7.17) can be rewritten as In the case of strong electron-phonon coupling, holds and the third term can be neglected. Assuming parabolic bands (see Appendix A.4), the valence band density of states can be expressed as with Using (7.19), the integral in equation (7.11) can be evaluated as and simplifies to with Here, denotes the Gamma function, which is defined by With (7.22), the compact form of the rate equation (7.11) can be rewritten as From this, it follows that Just as in the standard SRH theory (see Section 2.5), the right-hand side of equation (7.26) can be simplified using the definition with Analogously to Section 2.5, thermal equilibrium can be assumed so that the trap occupation follows Fermi-Dirac statistics and detailed balance applies for the rate equation (7.25). Then equals and the hole capture and emission time constant reads It is emphasized that the barrier heights are correctly calculated by determining the crossing point of two parabolas. Thereby, one avoids the artificial differentiation, whether is located above or below , as it has been the case in equation (6.10) of the TSM. Additionally, the NMP barriers have not been assumed to be independent of the energy of the hole in contrast to the Kirton model and the TSM.