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Emulation and Simulation of
Microelectronic Fabrication Processes

5.3 Summary

In this chapter, several microelectronic fabrication steps were introduced and their modelling approaches discussed. Long-standing and well understood processes, such as CVD were emulated using empirical or analytical methods and simulated using physical modelling for particle transport and surface chemistry.

Epitaxial growth is highly important for semiconductor fabrication and has been emulated using geometric models for the S/D regions of a modern FinFET structure, as well as simulated with physical models for a sensitive Si2H2Cl2 chemistry. Crystal direction dependent wet etching was shown for a MEMS structure using the SLLF numerical advection scheme developed during the course of this work.

Subsequently, the main physical mechanisms leading to the observed etch behaviour were discussed for commonly used plasma etch processes. Physical models for these chemistries are described and applied in the physical simulation of the etching of a gate stack of the 14 nm technology node.

Furthermore, intricate emulation models for the efficient modelling of different types of modern Bosch Processes were presented. These models have all been developed during the course of this work and are discussed in detail, including comparisons to experimental results.

Process flows for the fabrication of entire devices are presented and the previously introduced models are used to generate the final structures. These models include a combination of geometric and physical models, leading to the efficient generation of process-aware structures which include physical effects specific to the applied fabrication processes.