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- 2.1. Comparison of saturated output
power/mm gate width as a function of frequency.
- 2.2. Comparison of the absolute output
power as a function of frequency.
- 2.3. Comparison of gain per stage as a
function of frequency.
- 2.4. Comparison of the power added
efficiency as a function of frequency.
- 2.5. Noise figure versus frequency for
low noise amplifiers.
- 2.6. Comparison of
for different FET types.
- 2.7. Comparison of the
versus for MESFET, HEMT, and HBT taken from different material systems.
- 2.8. Power density versus frequency for
GaN HEMTs circuits for different substrates and modes of
- 2.9. Absolute output power as a
function of frequency for GaAs HBTs and GaN HEMTs.
- 2.10. , , and
applied V as a function of CMOS effective gate length according to ITRS 99 roadmap
- 2.11. Reported output power versus
frequency for several analog Si technologies.
- 2.12. as a function of
for Si bipolar technologies.
- 2.13. as a function of
for several published SiGe HBT technologies.
- 3.1. Standard terms for layers in a HEMT used in this work.
- 3.2. Bowing parameters for the band
gap in AlGaN [255,303].
- 3.3. Comparison of the analytical
models and experimental data for
= 5..1010 cm for AlGaAs.
- 3.4. Carrier mobility as a function of
material composition for InAlAs in comparison with
- 3.5. Carrier mobility as a function of
material composition for InGaAs at
= 300 K.
- 3.6. Comparison of the analytical
model, measurement, and MC data for InAlAs
versus doping concentration at
= 300 K
- 3.7. Comparison of the analytical model,
measurements, and MC data for InGaAs versus
doping concentration at
= 300 K.
- 3.8. Saturation velocity versus
temperature for GaN and AlN [17,204].
- 3.9. Saturation velocity as a function
of material composition for InAlAs.
- 3.10. Saturation velocity as a function
of material composition for InGaAs.
- 3.11. Saturation velocity versus
material composition for AlGaAs.
- 3.12. Saturation velocity versus
temperature for InGaAs [52,91,317].
- 3.13. Saturation velocity versus
material composition for AlGaN .
- 3.14. Fit of the measured impact
ionization rates versus inverse field for GaAs .
- 3.15. Measured impact ionization rates
versus inverse field for
- 3.16. Impact ionization parameters as a
function of material composition for AlGaAs
- 3.17. Impact ionization rates as a
function of material composition for InAlAs
- 3.18. Impact ionization parameters
versus temperature for a given field in GaAs .
- 3.19. Impact ionization parameters
versus temperature in InP .
- 3.20. Modeling of the impact
ionization rate vs. carrier temperature for GaAs with the lattice temperature as a
- 3.21. Modeling of the impact
ionization rate vs. carrier temperature for InGaAs with the lattice temperature
as a parameter.
- 3.22. Modeling of the temperature
dependence of the thermal conductivity of GaN, AlN, and SiC [260,266,267].
- 3.23. Typical carrier concentrations
versus channel In content in InGaAs HEMTs obtained
by Hall data at
= 300 K.
- 3.24. Active doping density
versus nominal doping density .
- 3.25. Different ohmic contact situations.
- 3.26. Areas considered for a one- and two-dimensional treatment of the
integration path for a high-power pseudomorphic HEMT.
- 3.27. Mean carrier
velocities as a function of gate length .
- 3.28. Overshoot effects as a function
of background doping.
- 3.29. Mid-channel velocity curve
obtained by DAMOCLES for = 2 V, = 0 V and corresponding carrier concentration in
- 3.30. Three-dimensional energetic and local electron distribution
obtained by using the simulator DAMOCLES.
- 3.31. Gate currents as a function of
temperature for an InP based InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT.
- 3.32. Two-dimensional HD impact
ionization generation rates in a single recess AlGaAs/ InGaAs HEMT at = 1 V and =
5 V using MINIMOS-NT.
- 4.1. Standard small-signal equivalent
circuit of a HEMT .
- 4.2. Extended small-signal equivalent circuit for a HEMT including
gate-leakage and impact ionization .
- 4.3. as a function of
for an InAlAs/InGaAs/InP HEMT, an AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs PHEMT and a AlGaN/GaN HEMT.
- 4.4. as a function of
for several different AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs HEMT technologies.
- 4.5. Measured (+) and simulated (-)
S-parameters between f= 2..120 GHz for = 1.5 V.
- 4.6. Program sketch of PALACE.
- 5.1. Definition of the mean device for
a wafer map of output curve fields.
- 5.2. 4 inch wafer map results of a
pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT.
- 5.3. Scree plot of the example.
- 5.4. Inclusion of external variables
into the optimization process.
- 5.5. Sensitivity analysis of a
towards variations as a function of frequency.
- 6.1. Typical dimensions for 3D thermal
chip and 2D electro-thermal device simulations.
- 6.2. Temperature distribution of a
two-dimensional simulation for an on-wafer situation fitted to the boundaries obtained by
- 6.3. Output characteristics with the
gate width as a parameter for devices from the same cell on the
- 6.4. Transistor-transistor interaction:
image of the transistor test structure.
- 6.5. as a function of
dissipated power for the test structure.
- 6.6. Transistor-transistor
interaction: at = 373 K for an 8125 m HEMT as a function of
for transistors of the same kind switched in parallel.
- 6.7. Pulsed DC-measurements as a
function of on pulse width for a repetition rate of 100 ms.
- 6.8. Current dependence of the
breakdown voltage of Technology B, Variation A.
- 6.9. Current dependence of the
breakdown voltage of Technology B, Variation B.
- 6.10. Current dependence of the
breakdown voltage of Technology A.
- 6.11. Current dependence of the breakdown
voltage of Technology C.
- 6.12. Temperature dependence of
the breakdown voltages and of Technology B.
- 6.13. Temperature dependence of
the breakdown voltage of the InP-based composite channel HEMT of Technology E.
- 6.14. Drain ledge dependence of the
breakdown voltage for a gate current of= 1 mA/mm of Technology D.
- 6.15. Breakdown voltage
versus gate length of Technology D.
- 6.16. Temperature dependence of the
breakdown voltage of Technology D.
- 6.17. Comparison of the 1/f noise
between 0.5 Hz and 10 MHz for various transistor samples.
- 6.18. Load-pull measurement of
P, P, and gain for 460 m HEMT versus frequency of Technology A.
- 6.19. Output power, gain, and PAE for
f= 30 GHz, Technology B, Variation A.
- 6.20. Output power, gain, and PAE for
f= 30 GHz, Technology B, Variation B.
- 6.21. Output power, gain, and PAE for
f= 40 GHz for Variation B for = 298 K and = 343 K for a 660 m device.
- 6.22. Temperature dependence of the
, P, and P of a high-power amplifier at f= 35 GHz.
- 6.23. Load-pull measurement for a
860 m device of Technology C at = 3.0 V.
- 6.24. Output power, gain, and PAE for
a 860 m at f= 35 GHz of Technology D.
- 6.25. Load-pull measurements for the
same device at f= 40 GHz.
- 6.26. Saturated output power
and gain for f= 35 GHz for two different substrate temperatures .
- 6.27. Temperature dependence of the
optimum load for a substrate temperature = 298 K and 353 K.
- 6.28. Saturated output power, gain,
and PAE of a 860 m at f= 35 GHz versus relative recess length in Technology D.
- 6.29. Saturated output power
versus frequency, measured for Technology D for a second HEMT layout.
- 7.1. Three-dimensional image of critical
simulation issues in HEMTs(1)=Thermal boundary conditions, (2)=
Heterojunction carrier transport, (3)= (-)doping
activation, (4) = high field effects, (5) = gate currents.
- 7.2. Output characteristics for a
= 150 nm AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs HEMT.
- 7.3. versus gate length
for = 1.5 V.
- 7.4. Transconductance
versus lattice temperature including self-heating.
- 7.5. Threshold voltage versus
-doping concentration = 440 nm.
- 7.6. Saturation current
as a function of -doping concentration for = 2 V.
- 7.7. Simulated (-) and measured (+)
S-parameters at = 373 K and = 1.5 V and for .
- 7.8. Simulated (-) and measured (+)
S-parameters at = 300 K and = 2 V and = -0.5 V.
- 7.9. Simulated and measured and
RF- as a function of bias.
- 7.10. and as a
function of bias for constant .
- 7.11. as a function of
without holes and with holes including generation/ recombination for a = 140 nm
- 7.12. Simulated
as a function of bias for = 440 nm with the cap doping concentration as parameter.
- 7.13. Simulated and measured
RF- as a function of bias for = 2 V.
- 7.14. as a function of
bias for = 2 V.
- 7.15. The drain-source capacitance
as a function of bias for = 2 V.
- 7.16. Experimental decrease of
as a function of gate length .
- 7.17. as a function of
bias for different contact situations.
- 7.18. as a function of
for 440 m device.
- 7.19. Modeled as a function of
gate-to-channel separation .
- 7.20. Output characteristics of
pseudomorphic power HEMT.
- 7.21. Measured and simulated as
a function of bias.
- 7.22. Measured transconductance
versus at =1.5 V and different for a 4 m high-power
- 7.23. Geometry for a double recess.
- 7.24. Electric field for =
5 V, = 8 V and 250 mA/mm for a = 190 nm HEMT with a depleted recess.
- 7.25. Electric field for
= 5 V, = 8 V and 250 mA/mm for a = 190 nm HEMT with a
non-depleted outer recess.
- 7.26. Two-dimensional view of the
carrier concentration in [cm] for a HEMT for = 5 V and = 150 mA/mm.
- 7.27. Maximum electric field for an
open device (= 250 mA/mm) as a function of inner recess length for a non-depleted recess
- 7.28. Electric field for two
different surface potentials for = 17 V for a = 300 nm pseudomorphic HEMT.
- 7.29. versus recess length
for = 1.5 V and 5 V.
- 7.30. Measured drop
/ versus .
- 7.31. Output characteristics of a
260 m pseudomorphic AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs HEMT.
- 7.32. Transconductance
versus for a = 100 nm GaAs MESFET .
- 7.33. Output characteristics of a
= 300 nm based AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT on GaAs substrate.
- 7.34. Measured temperature dependence
of and for = 300-473 K for a = 150 nm device.
- 7.35. Simulated and measured transfer
characteristic as a function of temperature .
- 7.36. Output characteristics of a dual
channel InP based pseudomorphic HEMT with = 150 nm.
- 7.37. Simulated and measured input
characteristics versus .
- 7.38. Input characteristics
versus as a function of temperature .
- 7.39. Simulated (-) and measured (+)
S-parameters of a dual channel InP HEMT with = 150 nm.
- 7.40. Simulated and measured
versus bias at constant for the = 150 nm dual channel InP based HEMT.
- 7.41. Transfer characteristics of a
metamorphic depletion-type HEMT with = 150 nm.
- 7.42. Transconductance versus
of a = 400 nm metamorphic HEMT.
- 7.43. as a function of material
- 7.44. Transfer characteristics of an
enhancement-type InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT for two bias.
- 7.45. reduction of a
= 150 nm HEMT versus average .
- 7.46. Threshold voltage versus
gate-to-channel separation .
- 7.47. Threshold voltage versus
- 7.48. versus in the
- 7.49. versus gate
- 7.50. Simulated and measured transfer
characteristics for = 6 V for a = 200 nm AlGaN/GaN HEMT.
- A.1. Active load-pull system for